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Added: Katelyn Farrish - Date: 02.01.2022 23:40 - Views: 16964 - Clicks: 8259

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Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. Please read and accept the terms and conditions and check the box to generate a sharing link. While some scholars have addressed the common cultural tropes about trans people, the way media might sometimes legitimate violence against trans people, and even take part in forms of violence, has not been analysed.

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This is what this article sets out to do, through an examination of how a verbal and physical attack against black trans women, videotaped and ed on a platform for user-generated entertainment, was framed in a way which repeated the symbolic violence reality enforcement already at play in the physical face-to-face encounter.

The article addresses the way this depiction of real violence, framed as entertainment, and coupled with identity invalidation both legitimizes physical violence and delegitimizes black trans feminine people as victims of violence. On the evening of 20 Maytwo men attacked two black trans women on an Trans girl naked train Atlanta Marta. Fellow travellers trans girl naked the encounter with their mobile phones. When the men started kicking and beating the women, the women defended themselves.

Nobody called for help, and nobody seemed physically hurt, at least not severely. The physical violence was over in a few minutes. Later, one of the bystanders ed a video on the video sharing site Flyvidz. The video clip quickly went viral and, two weeks after the attack, it had received a reported 2. The murders of trans feminine people are sometimes reported in mainstream media Williams, :but the people who have lost their lives are often deadnamed i. While scholars within trans studies have discussed this violence against trans feminine people of colour, the role of mobile technologies and user-generated media in relation to violence against trans women and trans feminine people has not been adequately addressed.

While scholars have paid attention to the common cultural tropes about trans people Bettcher, ; Serano,the way digital media sometimes legitimate violence against trans people, and even takes part in forms of violence, has not been adequately assessed. This article considers how a verbal and physical attack against black trans women, videotaped and ed on a platform for user-generated entertainment, was framed in a way which repeated the symbolic violence already at play in the physical face-to-face encounter.

I discuss the way this depiction of real violence, framed as entertainment, both legitimizes physical violence and delegitimates black trans feminine people as victims of violence. The structure of this article is as follows. I first introduce the concept of reality enforcement by Talia Mae Bettcher, and argue that reality enforcement can be seen as symbolic violence.

After this, I go on to an analysis of this case as user-generated symbolic violence. I do this in two sections. First, I focus on how intersectional power relations were at play in the delegitimation of the trans women as victims of violence through the framing of the video as entertainment and through the specifically feminine and sexualized figure of the tranny.

Ahmed, ; Haraway, ; McRobbie, ; Tyler, ; a figure of underclass, sexualized and racialized femininity. Second, I turn to what is specific about violence against trans feminine people as trans people, as illuminated in this case of violence gone viral, i. In these cases, the specific anti-trans aspect is the legitimation of violence as a justified response to the perceived breaking of gender normsaccording to the binary and linear gender.

This is the core of what philosopher and trans theorist Talia Mae Bettcher calls reality enforcement. Even while Bettcher discusses cases of severe physical violence as reality enforcement, she also sees reality enforcement as the very base of this violence. Inspired by her theorization, I contend that this anti-trans view on trans bodies is in itself already a form of symbolic violence Lumsden and Morgan, ; McRobbie, I argue that this is a case of user-generated symbolic violence — more specifically, user-generated reality enforcement.

I show how symbolic violence here works in an intersectional way. Through the analysis of the delegitimation of trans women as victims of violence, and legitimation of violence against them, I argue that the symbolic violence against trans feminine people is in part a product of, and a form of sustaining prevailing norms of femininity, which in turn are entangled with cisnormativity, in trans girl naked to being classed and racialized.

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Philosopher and trans studies scholar Talia Mae Bettcher has argued that violence against trans people takes different forms from the violence faced by cisgendered people. These specific forms of trans girl naked are a result of the norm of linear gender Bremer, : and the way people who are perceived to break it are punished for this. One specific form of violence discussed by Bettcher : is reality enforcement. Reality enforcement is anti-trans violence based on the idea that the presented or perceived gender of a person is a pointing to the form of their genitals Bettcher, This sort of view on gender constructs trans people as deceivers.

Trans people frequently face violence based on this idea on gender. I also want to elaborate the point Bettcher makes about the tropes reproducing trans people as unworthy, as legitimizing violence and in fact violent in themselves. These are two forms of what I call symbolic violence against trans people, which I probe in this article. I find the concept of symbolic violence derived from Pierre Bourdieu, utilized in theorizations of the way media reproduce social power relations, by feminist sociologists Angela McRobbie and Karen Lumsden and Heather Morgana useful one.

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Symbolic violence is a process of social reproduction Lumsden and Morgan, : ; McRobbie, Compliance — both the production of compliance and the manifestations of compliance — is essential to the concept of symbolic power or violence Lumsden and Morgan, : ; McRobbie, Moreover, the symbolic violence which is fundamental to reality enforcement as physical violence is carried on in depictions of this anti-trans violence in the media.

McRobbie, ; Tyler,a complex and affectively charged figure of classed, sexualized and racialized femininity. Taking on the cultural studies task to study the current culture in its mundane everyday forms, I examine a case of reality enforcement through viral user-generated media. I will now assess the ways in which the framing of the video of the attack in the train worked to delegitimize the trans women as victims and to legitimize the violence against them. The first instance of this framing was the choice to the video online, on a specific platform. The choice to the video non-consensually can be seen as a violent action and as such a form of violence.

The video of the attack on the two black trans women was ed on a site, Flyvidz. In addition, sites such as Flyvidz. Virality is contingent on the level of affect that the videos and their circulation manage to create. In the case of the video examined in this article, affect is contingent on how bodies are valued and disvalued along the axes of race, gender, class and sexuality.

Social reproduction through the public abuse and denigration of those who are low in the cultural hierarchies can take the form trans girl naked entertainment cf. McRobbie, In fact, the platform shaped the depicted events in the train in a way which legitimated the violence through framing it as entertainment. I continue the analysis of this case as social reproduction through addressing the framing of the video on the website.

I will first consider the way the video was framed through its title. Regardless of whether the asterisks were added by the person ing the video to the site or by a moderator, the asterisks intensify the connotations and affective intensities attached to the word. I contend that the figure of the tranny is a classed and racialized figure, which does the work of symbolic violence. The tranny as a figure allows some acts and some movement while delimiting others within the mainstream by and large cis-sexist and transmisogynistic culture.

Figures become stronger through repetition and circulation Ahmed, In the online economy of clicks, the figure of the tranny adds affective value cf. Karppi,and increases the circulation of content. As the figure tranny is attached time and again to trans women of colour, they are also attached to the informal, stigmatized and sometimes criminalized economies of sex work as well as the low class, or even underclass, status of these forms of labour.

Tyler, For McRobbiesymbolic violence is both about producing compliance to abuse by figures and tropes which demean the subordinated groups and make them appear less worthy, and the way subordinated people, feeling or acknowledging their subordination, act compliant to their own abuse. This particular case is not about compliance.

However, this case can be productively analysed through the concept of symbolic violence. The justification of the poor social status of a non-dominant group through demeaning tropes and figures is essential for the analysis of this case. Moreover, the concept of symbolic violence is useful for addressing ambivalences in cultural visibility of trans people, especially the visibility of violence against trans people.

In this case, the figure of the tranny works both to link the video of the violent event to entertainment, and to make the trans women seem unworthy of sympathy. Symbolic violence makes abuse and violence against oppressed groups seem legitimate, individualizing trans girl naked failures to comply to norms favouring the dominant groups McRobbie, : Needless to say, class and racialization are often linked. Moreover, the normative standards of femininity and masculinity are upheld by representations of aberrant others. Riley C Snorton has argued that black gender and sexuality have historically been represented as always already queer; associated trans girl naked suspicion, failure and excess.

The effect of the history of slavery on black family formations has been represented as pure failure on the part of black families and gender. Black gender and sexuality have also been represented as entertainingly failing, in ways which have to do with failure to be or appear respectably middle-class Snorton, : 72— This perceived failure and excess support the affective intensification of the figure of the tranny as one connoting a sexualized underclass.

Thus, the value attached to both the figure of the tranny and the bodies attached to it is related to failure to comply with white middle-class gender norms.

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