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Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. Some heterosexual men express sexual interest in feminine trans individuals with penises.

It is possible that this interest arises from a tendency for heterosexual men to be sexually responsive to gender in addition to sex. Heterosexual men were most attracted to trans female nude women and fixated on them the longest. However, they were more attracted to feminine trans individuals with penises than to cisgender men. They also biased their attention to feminine trans individuals with penises over cisgender men. This pattern was unique to heterosexual men.

Gay men were most attracted to cisgender men and allocated the most visual attention to them. They responded to feminine trans individuals and cisgender women in a relatively similar manner. As such, heterosexual men appear to be responsive to sex and gender, which may for sexual interest in feminine trans individuals among some heterosexual men.

Transgender refers to individuals whose gender i. The term feminine trans individuals will be used to refer to those who were ased a male-typical sex and gender at birth but who present in a feminine manner, either continuously or periodically. The identities of feminine trans individuals vary both within and between cultures 123.

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Whereas some of the individuals in question identify as women or trans womenparticularly in Western and other industrialized societies, others may, for example, identify as a non-binary gender i. Ethnographic research suggests that, in many cultures, these interactions are not uncommon 13. In certain cultures, such as the USA and Canada, however, they appear to be relatively rare 56. Across cultures, gay men are less likely than heterosexual men to express sexual interest in feminine trans individuals, including those with penises 789 The frequency with which feminine trans individuals augment their bodies using hormones and surgical procedures is also culturally varied.

For example, in many cultures, most feminine trans individuals behave and dress in a traditionally female-typical manner but do not augment their bodies substantially beyond modifications such as shaving, growing out their hair, and wearing makeup 3. In other cultures, such as Western ones, it is not uncommon for these individuals to use surgical and hormonal procedures for breast augmentation, facial feminization, and other body modification Namely, heterosexual men may generally have the capacity to become sexually interested in feminine trans individuals because they share physical and behavioral characteristics with cisgender women.

If so, predominantly heterosexual men would be predicted to exhibit sexual interest in feminine trans individuals that, although lower than their sexual interest in cisgender women, exceeds their sexual interest in cisgender men and non-sexual stimuli, regardless of cultural setting. In addition, heterosexual men would be predicted to exhibit ificantly greater sexual interest in feminine trans individuals with breasts than those without trans female nude, the former having more physical characteristics in common with their preferred sexual targets than the later.

Feminine trans individuals with breasts appeared to have undergone other feminizing hormonal and surgical treatments e. Responses to cisgender women, cisgender men, and non-sexual controls bonobos, Pan paniscusa species of great apes were used for comparison. All of the humans depicted in these images were nude. To assess biases in visual attention, we employed a forced attention paradigm in which individual images were presented on opposite sides of the screen. Doing so precluded participants from viewing both images simultaneously. research demonstrates that men bias their attention toward stimuli of their preferred gender and away from their non-preferred gender when using this paradigm 1213 In addition, we assessed whether sociosexuality i.

Specifically, we predicted that heterosexual men would report greater sexual attraction and allocate greater visual attention to cisgender women than to individuals with penises and other aspects of male-typical morphology i. However, heterosexual men were predicted to report greater sexual attraction and allocate greater visual attention to feminine trans individuals than to cisgender men and non-sexual stimuli. Furthermore, heterosexual men were predicted to report greater sexual attraction and allocate greater visual attention to feminine trans individuals with breasts than to feminine trans individuals without breasts.

Heterosexual and gay identified men were recruited from a small Canadian University. Psychology undergraduates were recruited through a participant research pool system Sona. Gay men were recruited from the university through Sona for an additional semester and posters advertisements.

Men who did not identify as heterosexual or gay e. Additionally, participants were required to have viewed pornography and be comfortable viewing sexual imagery. The latter criteria were included to ensure that participants would be comfortable during the task and to minimize the likelihood of participants responding in a unique fashion due to discomfort or first exposure to sexual imagery. Participants were grouped based on their sexual orientation identity. Analysis of self-reported sexual attraction pertained to 51 heterosexual men and 19 gay men. Analysis of visual attention pertained to 47 trans female nude men and 18 gay men.

Participants were shown 40 paired images, which included 1 nude feminine trans individuals with breasts, 2 nude feminine trans individuals without breasts, 3 nude women who appeared to be cisgender hereafter, cisgender women4 nude men who appeared to be cisgender hereafter cisgender menand 5 bonobos 16 of each. Each stimulus category was matched with the remaining four. The images within each category pair appeared in a different corner of the screen each time that the pair was shown.

Nude images were taken from freely accessible websites using similar search terms e. Backgrounds were removed leaving only the model and images were transformed to grey scale Light intensity was adjusted to limit its effect on gaze patterns Additionally, mean bytes persevered after JPEG compression were compared 1920 because image complexity can influence ratings of image valence Individual images were adjusted to pixels or 6. Images ranged in width from to pixels. Some features could not be controlled between the human and bonobos: bonobos are darker than humans and their fur adds complexity.

As trans female nude, the target images were similar in terms of their low-level features, but the neutral images contained some unique low-level features. The Tobii X uses near-infrared light operating at Hz to illuminate the eyes and sensors capture pupil movement using bright and dark pupil detection. The eye-tracker was calibrated for each participant, which required participants focus on 9 points on the screen.

Participants were informed that they would be required to evaluate the sexual appeal of nude images of men, women, and transgender individuals as well as bonobos.

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During the study, participants were shown the series of paired images. Each pair remained on the screen for 10 s and was preceded by a fixation cross that appeared on the screen for 2 s. The image pairs were entered in a random order, but all participants saw the same order. After each image pair, participants were asked to identify and rate the sexual attractiveness of the image on the top and the image on the bottom.

Following the experiment portion, participants were given a questionnaire. Image ratings were standardized trans female nude each participant. Mean values were calculated for each image category. Visual attention was evaluated using a forced attention paradigm 121314 Initial attention was assessed using time to first fixation TFF on an image low TFF scores indicate quicker attention capture.

Image values were standardized within each participant for all attention measures. Participants were asked whether they identified as heterosexual, gay, bisexual, or other in which case, they were asked to specify their identity. Aggregate Sociosexual Orientation Inventory scores were calculated using the weighting suggested by Simpson and Gangestad 24 the sexual behavior items were capped at Response to the scale measures were standardized across participants.

Statistical analysis was conducted using RStudio, version 1. Due to the low power to detect interaction effects, sexual orientation groups were assessed separately. Three paired Wilcoxon tests with continuity correction were used to compare sexual attraction to 1 cisgender women and the grand mean of individuals with penises i. Analyses of visual attention were conducted using linear regressions. Additionally, four planned contrasts were used to compare responses to bonobo and human images for each contrast, the relevant human category was coded as 1 and all others were coded as 0; bonobos were always coded as 0.

Linear regressions with interest in visual sexual stimuli, sociosexuality, and homonegativity predicting visual attention were conducted. Orthogonal contrasts were created to compare 1 cisgender women and individuals with penises, 2 cisgender men and feminine trans individuals, and 3 response to feminine trans individuals without breasts and feminine trans individuals with breasts. For each measure, difference scores were included as separate dependent variables. Participants were required to provide written informed consent prior to participating.

Participants were also required to provide verbal consent to allow their data to be used after completing the study. Self-reported sexual attraction and behavior with transgender women, cisgender women, and cisgender men are shown in Table 1. Descriptive statistics for the standardized and raw self-reported sexual attraction, time to first fixation TFFtotal fixation duration TFDand total fixation count TFC measures are shown in Table 2.

Points indicate mean values. Shapes show the density of data points. Points indicate group mean. Heterosexual men were most sexually attracted to cisgender women and least sexually attracted to cisgender men. They were more sexually attracted to feminine trans individuals than to cisgender men. They were also more sexually attracted to feminine trans individuals trans female nude breasts than trans female nude those without breasts.

In contrast, gay men reported being most sexually attracted to cisgender men and less sexually attracted to all of feminine individuals. Namely, their attention was captured by feminine individuals quicker than by cisgender men and bonobos. Additionally, they allocated greater controlled visual attention to all feminine stimuli than to cisgender men and bonobos. However, they subsequently focused their attention on individuals who had the most female-typical qualities i.

This pattern was not exhibited by gay men. It is worth noting that, although an effect of sex and gender were found, the effect of sex was more substantial than the effect of gender. Heterosexual men were markedly more sexually attracted to cisgender women and fixated longer on these women than on individuals with penises.

Additionally, they allocated greater controlled attention to feminine trans individuals with breasts—indicating greater sexual interest in them—than to feminine trans individuals without breasts. As such, the present findings indicate that feminine trans individuals with female-typical secondary sex characteristics i. Men employ dual processes i.

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Physiological arousal may be elicited during the initial processing of sexual stimuli, whereas subjective arousal requires controlled attention and cognitive appraisal

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